Class InputBitStream
 All Implemented Interfaces:
BooleanIterator
,Closeable
,Flushable
,AutoCloseable
,Iterator<Boolean>
,PrimitiveIterator<Boolean,
BooleanConsumer>
 Direct Known Subclasses:
DebugInputBitStream
This class wraps any InputStream
so that you can treat it as
bit stream. Constructors and methods closely resemble those of
InputStream
. Data can be read from such a stream in several ways:
reading a (long) natural number in fixedwidth, unary, γ, shifted γ, δ, ζ and (skewed)
Golomb coding, or reading a number of bits that will be stored in a vector of
bytes. There is limited support for mark(int)
/reset()
operations.
This class can also wrap a byte
array; this is much more lightweight than wrapping a FastByteArrayInputStream
wrapping the array. Overflowing the array
will cause an EOFException
.
Note that when reading using a vector of bytes bits are read in the
stream format (see OutputBitStream
): the first bit is bit 7 of the
first byte, the eighth bit is bit 0 of the first byte, the ninth bit is bit
7 of the second byte and so on. When reading natural numbers using some coding,
instead, they are stored in the standard way, that is, in the lower
bits.
Additional features:
 This class provides an internal buffer. By setting a buffer of length 0 at creation time, you can actually bypass the buffering system: Note, however, that several classes providing buffering have synchronised methods, so using a wrapper instead of the internal buffer is likely to lead to a performance drop.
 To work around the schizophrenic relationship between streams and random
access files in
java.io
, this class provides aflush()
method that resets the internal state. At this point, you can safely reposition the underlying stream and read again afterwards. For instance, this is safe and will perform as expected:FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(...); InputBitStream ibs = new InputBitStream(fis); ... read operations on ibs ... ibs.flush(); fis.getChannel().position(...); ... other read operations on ibs ...
As a commodity, an instance of this class will try to cast the underlying byte stream to a
RepositionableStream
and to fetch by reflection theFileChannel
underlying the given input stream, in this order. If either reference can be successfully fetched, you can use directly theposition()
method with argumentpos
with the same semantics of aflush()
, followed by a call toposition(pos / 8)
(where the latter method belongs either to the underlying stream or to its underlying file channel), followed by askip(pos % 8)
. However, since the reflective checks are quite heavy they can be disabled using a suitable constructor.  Finally, this class implements partially the interface of a boolean iterator.
More precisely,
nextBoolean()
will return the same bit asreadBit()
, and also the same exceptions, whereashasNext()
will always return true: you must be prepared to catch aRuntimeException
wrapping anIOException
in case the file ends. It is very difficult to implement completely an eager operator using a inputstream based model.
This class is not synchronised. If multiple threads access an instance of this class concurrently, they must be synchronised externally.
 Since:
 0.1
 Author:
 Sebastiano Vigna
 See Also:

Nested Class Summary
Nested classes/interfaces inherited from interface java.util.PrimitiveIterator
PrimitiveIterator.OfDouble, PrimitiveIterator.OfInt, PrimitiveIterator.OfLong

Field Summary
Modifier and TypeFieldDescriptionprotected int
Current number of bytes available in the byte buffer.protected byte[]
The stream buffer.static final int
The default size of the byte buffer in bytes (8Ki).static final int[]
protected final FileChannel
The cached file channel underlyingis
, if any.protected int
Current number of bits in the bit buffer (stored low).static final int[]
protected final InputStream
The underlyingInputStream
.protected int
Current position in the byte buffer.protected long
Current position of the first byte in the byte buffer.protected final RepositionableStream
is
cast to a positionable stream, if possible.static final int[]
protected final boolean
True if we are wrapping an array.static final int[]

Constructor Summary
ModifierConstructorDescriptionprotected
This (nonpublic) constructor exists just to provide fake initialisation for classes such asDebugInputBitStream
.InputBitStream
(byte[] a) Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given byte array.InputBitStream
(File file) Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file.Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given file input stream using a buffer of sizeDEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
.InputBitStream
(FileInputStream is, int bufSize) Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given file input stream with a specified buffer size.InputBitStream
(File file, int bufSize) Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file.Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream using a buffer of sizeDEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
.InputBitStream
(InputStream is, boolean testForPosition) Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream using a buffer of sizeDEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
.InputBitStream
(InputStream is, int bufSize) Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream with a specified buffer size.InputBitStream
(InputStream is, int bufSize, boolean testForPosition) Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream with a specified buffer size.InputBitStream
(String name) Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file.InputBitStream
(String name, int bufSize) Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file. 
Method Summary
Modifier and TypeMethodDescriptionvoid
align()
Aligns the stream.long
Returns the number of bits that can be read (or skipped over) from this bit stream without blocking by the next caller of a method.static boolean
checkLength
(String resource, int[] array, String resouceFullPath) void
close()
Closes the bit stream.void
copyTo
(OutputBitStream obs, long length) Copies a given number of bits from this input bit stream into a given output bit stream.void
flush()
Flushes the bit stream.boolean
hasNext()
void
mark
(int readLimit) Marks the current position in this input stream.boolean
boolean
long
position()
Returns this stream bit position.void
position
(long position) Sets this stream bit position, if it is based on aRepositionableStream
or on aFileChannel
.void
read
(byte[] bits, int len) Reads a sequence of bits.int
readBit()
Reads a bit.long
readBits()
Returns the number of bits read from this bit stream.void
readBits
(long readBits) Sets the number of bits read from this bit stream.int
Reads a natural number in δ coding.void
readDeltas
(int[] a, int count) Reads a given amount of δcoded natural numbers.int
Reads a natural number in γ coding.void
readGammas
(int[] a, int count) Reads a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.int
readGolomb
(int b) Reads a natural number in Golomb coding.int
readGolomb
(int b, int log2b) Reads a natural number in Golomb coding.int
readInt
(int len) Reads a fixed number of bits into an integer.long
readLong
(int len) Reads a fixed number of bits into a long.long
Reads a long natural number in δ coding.long
Reads a long natural number in γ coding.long
readLongGolomb
(long b) Reads a long natural number in Golomb coding.long
readLongGolomb
(long b, int log2b) Reads a long natural number in Golomb coding.long
readLongMinimalBinary
(long b) Reads a long natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding.long
readLongMinimalBinary
(long b, int log2b) Reads a long natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding.long
Reads a long natural number in variablelength nibble coding.long
Reads a natural number in shifted γ coding.long
readLongSkewedGolomb
(long b) Reads a long natural number in skewed Golomb coding.long
Reads a long natural number in unary coding.long
readLongZeta
(int k) Reads a long natural number in ζ coding.int
readMinimalBinary
(int b) Reads a natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding.int
readMinimalBinary
(int b, int log2b) Reads a natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding.int
Reads a natural number in variablelength nibble coding.int
Reads a natural number in shifted γ coding.void
readShiftedGammas
(int[] a, int count) Reads a given amount of shiftedγcoded natural numbers.int
readSkewedGolomb
(int b) Reads a natural number in skewed Golomb coding.int
Reads a natural number in unary coding.int
readZeta
(int k) Reads a natural number in ζ coding.void
readZetas
(int k, int[] a, int count) Reads a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.void
reset()
Repositions this bit stream to the position at the time themark(int)
method was last called.int
skip
(int n) Deprecated.long
skip
(long n) Skips the given number of bits.void
skipDeltas
(int n) Skips a given amount of δcoded natural numbers.void
skipDeltas
(long n) Skips a given amount of δcoded natural numbers.void
skipGammas
(int n) Skips a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.void
skipGammas
(long n) Skips a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.void
skipShiftedGammas
(int n) Skips a given amount of shiftedγcoded natural numbers.void
skipShiftedGammas
(long n) Skips a given amount of shiftedγcoded natural numbers.void
skipZetas
(int k, int n) Skips a given amount of ζcoded natural numbers.void
skipZetas
(int k, long n) Skips a given amount of ζcoded natural numbers.Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
Methods inherited from interface it.unimi.dsi.fastutil.booleans.BooleanIterator
forEachRemaining, forEachRemaining, next

Field Details

GAMMA
public static final int[] GAMMA 
DELTA
public static final int[] DELTA 
ZETA_3
public static final int[] ZETA_3 
SHIFTED_GAMMA
public static final int[] SHIFTED_GAMMA 
DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
public static final int DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZEThe default size of the byte buffer in bytes (8Ki). See Also:

is
The underlyingInputStream
. 
fileChannel
The cached file channel underlyingis
, if any. 
repositionableStream
is
cast to a positionable stream, if possible. 
wrapping
protected final boolean wrappingTrue if we are wrapping an array. 
buffer
protected byte[] bufferThe stream buffer. 
fill
protected int fillCurrent number of bits in the bit buffer (stored low). 
pos
protected int posCurrent position in the byte buffer. 
avail
protected int availCurrent number of bytes available in the byte buffer. 
position
protected long positionCurrent position of the first byte in the byte buffer.


Constructor Details

InputBitStream
protected InputBitStream()This (nonpublic) constructor exists just to provide fake initialisation for classes such asDebugInputBitStream
. 
InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream using a buffer of sizeDEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
.This constructor performs the reflective tests that are necessary to support
position(long)
. Parameters:
is
 the input stream to wrap.

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream using a buffer of sizeDEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
. Parameters:
is
 the input stream to wrap.testForPosition
 if false, the reflective test that is necessary to supportposition(long)
in caseis
does not implementRepositionableStream
will not be performed.

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream with a specified buffer size.This constructor performs the reflective tests that are necessary to support
position(long)
. Parameters:
is
 the input stream to wrap.bufSize
 the size in byte of the buffer; it may be 0, denoting no buffering.

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given input stream with a specified buffer size. Parameters:
is
 the input stream to wrap.bufSize
 the size in byte of the buffer; it may be 0, denoting no buffering.testForPosition
 if false, the reflective test that is necessary to supportposition(long)
in caseis
does not implementRepositionableStream
will not be performed.

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given file input stream using a buffer of sizeDEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
.This constructor invokes directly
FileInputStream.getChannel()
to supportposition(long)
. Parameters:
is
 the file input stream to wrap.

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given file input stream with a specified buffer size.This constructor invokes directly
FileInputStream.getChannel()
to supportposition(long)
. Parameters:
is
 the file input stream to wrap.bufSize
 the size in byte of the buffer; it may be 0, denoting no buffering.

InputBitStream
public InputBitStream(byte[] a) Creates a new input bit stream wrapping a given byte array. Parameters:
a
 the byte array to wrap.

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file.This constructor invokes directly
FileInputStream.getChannel()
to supportposition(long)
. Parameters:
name
 the name of the file.bufSize
 the size in byte of the buffer; it may be 0, denoting no buffering. Throws:
FileNotFoundException

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file.This constructor invokes directly
FileInputStream.getChannel()
to supportposition(long)
. Parameters:
name
 the name of the file. Throws:
FileNotFoundException

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file.This constructor invokes directly
FileInputStream.getChannel()
to supportposition(long)
. Parameters:
file
 the file. Throws:
FileNotFoundException

InputBitStream
Creates a new input bit stream reading from a file.This constructor invokes directly
FileInputStream.getChannel()
to supportposition(long)
. Parameters:
file
 the file.bufSize
 the size in byte of the buffer; it may be 0, denoting no buffering. Throws:
FileNotFoundException


Method Details

checkLength

flush
public void flush()Flushes the bit stream. All state information associated with the stream is reset. This includes bytes prefetched from the stream, bits in the bit buffer and unget'd bits.This method is provided so that users of this class can easily wrap repositionable streams (for instance, filebased streams, which can be repositioned using the underlying
FileChannel
). It is guaranteed that after calling this method the underlying stream can be repositioned, and that the next read will draw data from the stream. 
close
Closes the bit stream. All resources associated with the stream are released. Specified by:
close
in interfaceAutoCloseable
 Specified by:
close
in interfaceCloseable
 Throws:
IOException

available
Returns the number of bits that can be read (or skipped over) from this bit stream without blocking by the next caller of a method. Returns:
 the number of bits that can be read from this bit stream without blocking.
 Throws:
IOException

readBits
public long readBits()Returns the number of bits read from this bit stream. Returns:
 the number of bits read so far.

readBits
public void readBits(long readBits) Sets the number of bits read from this bit stream.This method is provided so that, for instance, the user can reset via
readBits(0)
the readbits count after aflush()
. Parameters:
readBits
 the new value for the number of bits read so far.

align
public void align()Aligns the stream. After a call to this function, the stream is byte aligned. Bits that have been read to align are discarded. 
read
Reads a sequence of bits. Bits will be read in the natural way: the first bit is bit 7 of the first byte, the eightth bit is bit 0 of the first byte, the ninth bit is bit 7 of the second byte and so on. Parameters:
bits
 an array of bytes to store the result.len
 the number of bits to read. Throws:
IOException

readBit
Reads a bit. Returns:
 the next bit from the stream.
 Throws:
IOException

readInt
Reads a fixed number of bits into an integer. Parameters:
len
 a bit length. Returns:
 an integer whose lower
len
bits are taken from the stream; the rest is zeroed.  Throws:
IOException

readLong
Reads a fixed number of bits into a long. Parameters:
len
 a bit length. Returns:
 a long whose lower
len
bits are taken from the stream; the rest is zeroed.  Throws:
IOException

skip
Skips the given number of bits. Parameters:
n
 the number of bits to skip. Returns:
 the actual number of skipped bits.
 Throws:
IOException

position
Sets this stream bit position, if it is based on aRepositionableStream
or on aFileChannel
.Given an underlying stream that implements
RepositionableStream
or that can provide aFileChannel
via thegetChannel()
method, a call to this method has the same semantics of aflush()
, followed by a call toposition(position / 8)
on the byte stream, followed by askip(position % 8)
.Note that this method does not change the value returned by
readBits()
. Parameters:
position
 the new position expressed as a bit offset. Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException
 if the underlying byte stream does not implementRepositionableStream
or if the channel it returns is not aFileChannel
.IOException
 See Also:

position
public long position()Returns this stream bit position. Returns:
 this stream bit position.

markSupported
public boolean markSupported()Tests if this stream supports themark(int)
andreset()
methods.This method will just delegate the test to the underlying
InputStream
. 
mark
Marks the current position in this input stream. A subsequent call to thereset()
method repositions this stream at the last marked position so that subsequent reads reread the same bits.This method will just delegate the mark to the underlying
InputStream
. Moreover, it will throw an exception if you try to mark outsite byte boundaries. Parameters:
readLimit
 the maximum limit of bytes that can be read before the mark position becomes invalid. Throws:
IOException
 if you try to mark outside byte boundaries.

reset
Repositions this bit stream to the position at the time themark(int)
method was last called.This method will just
flush the stream
and delegate the reset to the underlyingInputStream
. Throws:
IOException

readUnary
Reads a natural number in unary coding. Returns:
 the next unaryencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readLongUnary
Reads a long natural number in unary coding. Note that by unary coding we mean that 1 encodes 0, 01 encodes 1 and so on. Returns:
 the next unaryencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readGamma
Reads a natural number in γ coding. Returns:
 the next γencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readLongGamma
Reads a long natural number in γ coding. Returns:
 the next γencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

skipGammas
Skips a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadGamma()
orreadLongGamma()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
n
 the number of γcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

skipGammas
Skips a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadGamma()
orreadLongGamma()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
n
 the number of γcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readGammas
Reads a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadGamma()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced. Parameters:
a
 an array of at leastcount
integers where the result will be written starting at the first position.count
 the number of γcoded natural numbers to be read. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readShiftedGamma
Reads a natural number in shifted γ coding. Returns:
 the next shiftedγ–encoded natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readLongShiftedGamma
Reads a natural number in shifted γ coding. Returns:
 the next shiftedγ–encoded natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

skipShiftedGammas
Skips a given amount of shiftedγcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadShiftedGamma()
orreadLongShiftedGamma()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
n
 the number of shiftedγcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

skipShiftedGammas
Skips a given amount of shiftedγcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadShiftedGamma()
orreadLongShiftedGamma()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
n
 the number of shiftedγcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readShiftedGammas
Reads a given amount of shiftedγcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadShiftedGamma()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced. Parameters:
a
 an array of at leastcount
integers where the result will be written starting at the first position.count
 the number of shiftedγcoded natural numbers to be read. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readDelta
Reads a natural number in δ coding. Returns:
 the next δencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readLongDelta
Reads a long natural number in δ coding. Returns:
 the next δencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

skipDeltas
Skips a given amount of δcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadDelta()
orreadLongDelta()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
n
 the number of δcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

skipDeltas
Skips a given amount of δcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadDelta()
orreadLongDelta()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
n
 the number of δcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readDeltas
Reads a given amount of δcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadDelta()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced. Parameters:
a
 an array of at leastcount
integers where the result will be written starting at the first position.count
 the number of δcoded natural numbers to be read. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readMinimalBinary
Reads a natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding. Parameters:
b
 a strict upper bound. Returns:
 the next minimally binary encoded natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you try to read a negative number or use a nonpositive base.IOException
 See Also:

readMinimalBinary
Reads a natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding. This method is faster thanreadMinimalBinary(int)
because it does not have to computelog2b
. Parameters:
b
 a strict upper bound.log2b
 the floor of the base2 logarithm of the bound. Returns:
 the next minimally binary encoded natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you try to read a negative number or use a nonpositive base.IOException
 See Also:

readLongMinimalBinary
Reads a long natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding. Parameters:
b
 a strict upper bound. Returns:
 the next minimally binary encoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you try to read a negative number or use a nonpositive base.IOException
 See Also:

readLongMinimalBinary
Reads a long natural number in a limited range using a minimal binary coding. This method is faster thanreadLongMinimalBinary(long)
because it does not have to computelog2b
. Parameters:
b
 a strict upper bound.log2b
 the floor of the base2 logarithm of the bound. Returns:
 the next minimally binary encoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you try to read a negative number or use a nonpositive base.IOException
 See Also:

readGolomb
Reads a natural number in Golomb coding.This method implements also the case in which
b
is 0: in this case, nothing will be read, and 0 will be returned. Parameters:
b
 the modulus for the coding. Returns:
 the next Golombencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a nonpositive modulus.IOException
 See Also:

readGolomb
Reads a natural number in Golomb coding. This method is faster thanreadGolomb(int)
because it does not have to computelog2b
.This method implements also the case in which
b
is 0: in this case, nothing will be read, and 0 will be returned. Parameters:
b
 the modulus for the coding.log2b
 the floor of the base2 logarithm of the coding modulus. Returns:
 the next Golombencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a nonpositive modulus.IOException
 See Also:

readLongGolomb
Reads a long natural number in Golomb coding.This method implements also the case in which
b
is 0: in this case, nothing will be read, and 0 will be returned. Parameters:
b
 the modulus for the coding. Returns:
 the next Golombencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a nonpositive modulus.IOException
 See Also:

readLongGolomb
Reads a long natural number in Golomb coding. This method is faster thanreadLongGolomb(long)
because it does not have to computelog2b
.This method implements also the case in which
b
is 0: in this case, nothing will be read, and 0 will be returned. Parameters:
b
 the modulus for the coding.log2b
 the floor of the base2 logarithm of the coding modulus. Returns:
 the next Golombencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a nonpositive modulus.IOException
 See Also:

readSkewedGolomb
Reads a natural number in skewed Golomb coding.This method implements also the case in which
b
is 0: in this case, nothing will be read, and 0 will be returned. Parameters:
b
 the modulus for the coding. Returns:
 the next skewed Golombencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a negative modulus.IOException
 See Also:

readLongSkewedGolomb
Reads a long natural number in skewed Golomb coding.This method implements also the case in which
b
is 0: in this case, nothing will be read, and 0 will be returned. Parameters:
b
 the modulus for the coding. Returns:
 the next skewed Golombencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a negative modulus.IOException
 See Also:

readZeta
Reads a natural number in ζ coding. Parameters:
k
 the shrinking factor. Returns:
 the next ζencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a nonpositive shrinking factor.IOException
 See Also:

readLongZeta
Reads a long natural number in ζ coding. Parameters:
k
 the shrinking factor. Returns:
 the next ζencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if you use a nonpositive shrinking factor.IOException
 See Also:

skipZetas
Skips a given amount of ζcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadZeta(int)
orreadLongZeta(int)
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
k
 the shrinking factor.n
 the number of ζcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

skipZetas
Skips a given amount of ζcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadZeta(int)
orreadLongZeta(int)
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced, and the result is discarded, soskip(long)
can be invoked instead of more specific decoding methods. Parameters:
k
 the shrinking factor.n
 the number of ζcoded natural numbers to be skipped. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readZetas
Reads a given amount of γcoded natural numbers.This method should be significantly quicker than iterating
n
times onreadGamma()
, as precomputed tables are used directly, so the number of method calls is greatly reduced. Parameters:
k
 the shrinking factor.a
 an array of at leastcount
integers where the result will be written starting at the first position.count
 the number of ζcoded natural numbers to be read. Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readNibble
Reads a natural number in variablelength nibble coding. Returns:
 the next variablelength nibbleencoded natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

readLongNibble
Reads a long natural number in variablelength nibble coding. Returns:
 the next variablelength nibbleencoded long natural number.
 Throws:
IOException
 See Also:

hasNext
public boolean hasNext() 
nextBoolean
public boolean nextBoolean() Specified by:
nextBoolean
in interfaceBooleanIterator

skip
Deprecated.This method is simply an expensive, try/catchsurrounded version ofskip(long)
that is made necessary by the interface byBooleanIterator
.Skips over the given number of bits. Specified by:
skip
in interfaceBooleanIterator
 Parameters:
n
 the number of bits to skip. Returns:
 the number of bits actually skipped.

copyTo
Copies a given number of bits from this input bit stream into a given output bit stream. Parameters:
obs
 an output bit stream.length
 the number of bits to copy. Throws:
EOFException
 if there are not enough bits to copy.IOException

skip(long)
that is made necessary by the interface byBooleanIterator
.